Formal and Informal Red Meat Industry in the Western Cape

Hidden in Plain Sight: A Regional Inquiry into the Size, Scope and Socioeconomic Effects of the Western Cape’s Formal and Informal Red Meat Industries

Industry Sector: Cattle and Small Stock

Research Focus Areas: Animal Health and Welfare; Animal Products, quality and safety, nutritional value and preference; The economics of red meat consumption and production in South Africa

Research Institute: Agriculture Research Institute – Animal Production Institute

Researcher: Dr Nick Vink PhD (Agric)

Title Initials Surname Highest Qualification
Mr. Michael McCullough M

Completion Date 23 August 2018

Aims Of The Project

  • 3.1 To determine and report the size and scope of the informal red meat I industry as well as the informal industry’s effects on food safety, animal health and l welfare and food security with an initial focus on the Western Cape.
  • 3.2 To determine and report the size and scope of the formal red meat industry as well as the formal industry’s effects on food safety, animal welfare and food security with a primary focus on the Western Cape.
  • 3.3 To create and test a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology for determining the size and scope of the red meat industry in South Africa with a primary emphasis on the informal sector, a secondary emphasis on the formal sector as well as recommendations for improving current levels of food safety, animal welfare and food security.

Executive Summary

The genesis of Hidden in Plain Sight was two previous studies of red meat marketing systems: one in a rural Municipality in the Western Cape that discovered an informal shadow industry operating alongside a formal system of abattoirs, supermarkets and independent butcheries; the other in the townships and informal settlements of Cape Town that described an informal marketing system filling a vacuum created by the abdication of the formal system of supermarkets and butcheries. Beyond the scope of both studies was an appreciation of the size and scope of the Province’s informal systems of red meat production, processing and distribution. Hidden in Plain Sight attempts to determine size and scope of the Province’s informal red meat industry, its effects on food security, food safety and animal health and welfare.

Informal livestock farmers pasturing cattle and sheep primarily on Municipal land as well as raising pigs in improvised piggeries furnish livestock for informal processing; i.e. outdoor slaughter and indoor butchery in unlicensed facilities such as home kitchens and food stands. One and two kilo ‘value paks’ are then sold from kitchen butcheries in rural communities. Braai stands located near taxi ranks, train stations and major intersection in the former townships of Khayelitsha, Gugulethu and Nyanga in the Cape Town Metropole receive live animals directly from informal producers located on City land surrounding these communities. The animals are slaughtered on the sidewalk in front the stands or in any other adjacent open space. The muscle meat is sliced into strips and braaied, the heads are skinned, split and charred and the offal is piled on the counter for sale to hawkers or take-home consumers.

The informal system exists in both urban and rural areas to serve the 2.6 million low to very low income households in the Western Cape. In addition to low incomes many urban and rural households live in virtual ‘food deserts’ where, in the absence of transportation either public or private access to food sellers is at best difficult.  Low to very low incomes and lack of access expose over half of the Province’s households to food insecurity and place 29 percent at risk of hunger.

An expectation at the inception of this study was that size and scope of the informal system although unknown would rival the formal red meat system and would be sufficient to serve a significant percentage of the Province’s food insecure households. Such was not the case. Survey data based on inspections of informal production sites throughout the Province, census  and interview data from the Veterinary Service and the Farmer Support and Development programmes of the Western Cape Department of Agriculture and interviews with Municipal Social Development officials yield numbers of informal produced livestock clearly insufficient to serve a fraction of households at risk for hunger. Three recommendations are offered to increase the capacity of the informal industry to serve food insecure households: conduct a comprehensive inventory of public land suitable for informal production; establish an informal production, processing and distribution pilot project in each District Municipality; investigate existing parallel formal – informal marketing systems in Latin America; develop a prototype two tiered regulatory frame work to facilitate food security whilst ensuring food safety.

Please contact the Primary Researcher if you need a copy of the comprehensive report of this project – Dr Nick Vink  on nv@sun.ac.za

Dairy ranching for beef and milk

Small scale Dairy ranching for the resource poor sector in South Africa

Industry Sector: Cattle and Small Stock

Research focus area: The economics of red meat consumption and production in South Africa

Research Institute: Agricultural Research Council – Animal Production Institute

Researcher: Dr. Susanna Maria Grobler PhD

Title Initials Surname Highest Qualification
Prof MM Scholtz DSc
Dr F Nerere PhD
Dr MD MacNeil PhD (USDA)
Mr HJ van Rooyen MVL
Ms V Leesburg MSc (USDA)

Final report approved: 23 August 2018

Aims of the project

  • To generate results from a dairy ranching system that can be used by existing and new emerging cattle farmers.
  • To benchmark the system of dairy ranching for the resource poor sector in comparison with a small scale dairy production and an ordinary beef cattle suckler (weaner calf) system.
  • To do on station characterization and benchmarking of different cattle genotypes for suitability to be utilized in systems of dairy ranching.
  • To measure the levels of methane emission between the different genotypes

Executive Summary

Dairy ranching is defined as the practice of keeping cows of relatively low milk yield, who are parted from their calves in the evenings, milked out in the morning, and spend the day with their calves at foot while the cows are usually not milked in the evening.

The objectives of the study was firstly to generate results from a project that imitate Dairy ranching that can be used by existing and new emerging cattle farmers; secondly to benchmark the system of Dairy ranching for the resource poor sector in comparison with small-scale dairy production and an ordinary weaner system; thirdly to do on station characterization and benchmarking of different cattle genotypes for suitability to be utilized in aDairy ranching system; and fourthly to measure the levels of methane emission between the different genotypes.

The project commenced with five purebred heifers each of the Bonsmara, Brahman, Nguni and Red Poll breed. The small-scale dairy at Roodeplaat, was used to produce milk from Jersey cows grazing natural veld under small-scale conditions with limited resources. The weigh-suckle-weigh technique was used to estimate milk production from all breeds except the Jerseys, which was milked daily.

When comparing the different breeds, the Nguni cows followed by the Brahman cows showed the highest potential income from a weaner production system. In the Dairy ranching system, the dual-purpose Red Poll cows had the highest potential income. The Jersey cows milked in a conventional dairy system potential income reduced by 24% when cows were milked once per day instead of twice per day. The Dairy ranching system produced the highest potential income compared to the weaner production system and conventional dairy milking once per day. The conventional dairy produced the highest potential income when milked twice daily.

With funding from rural development, another ARC-API project “Dairy value chain”, established small-scale milk production units in rural areas in Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape by making use of the Dairy ranching project’s principles after the Dairy ranching project’s promising preliminary results. These small-scale farmers are producing milk now successfully for the past three years.

Understanding the differences in enteric methane production from cattle in different production systems is important for the productivity in the different sectors and for developing mitigation strategies in respect of the contribution of agricultural activities to methane emissions.

In the first study methane production was measured from, Bonsmara, Nguni and Jersey heifers, grazing natural sour veld, forage sorghum under irrigation, oats pasture under irrigation and a total mixed ration (TMR) were significant differences were found between breeds and feed sources. It was also found that individual animals emitted higher or lower quantities of methane irrespective of the feed source. The second study evaluated methane production from pregnant Bonsmara-, Brahman-, Jersey-, Nguni- and Red Poll heifers grazing natural veld and forage Sorghum under irrigation. Bonsmara heifers produced the highest amount of methane and the Jerseys produced the lowest amount of methane on both the natural veld and forage Sorghum.

Please contact the Primary Researcher if you need a copy of the comprehensive report of this project – Dr Grobler on mgrobler@arc.agric.za