Chilling and electrical stimulation of beef carcasses

Effects of chilling and electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality attributes of selected breeds of cattle with different carcass weights

Industry Sector: Cattle and Small Stock

Research Focus Area: Animal Products, Quality and Value-adding

Research Institute: University of Pretoria

Researcher: Prof Edward Webb

Title Initials Surname Highest Qualification
Mr Babatunde Agbeniga MSc
Dr P.E. Strydom PhD

Final Report Approved: 23 August 2018

Aims Of The Project

  • To compile a comprehensive literature review on current chilling and electrical stimulation guidelines
  • To compare chilling and electrical stimulation of selected cattle breeds of different carcass weights and to evaluate the effects of different chilling regimes and different stimulation procedures on carcass and meat quality attributes
  • To make recommendations to the meat industry on acceptable ways of chilling and stimulating carcasses in order to obtain the best quality carcasses and meat

Executive Summary

This research focused on acceptable ways of chilling and electrically stimulating beef carcasses in order to obtain the best quality meat, given the current use of growth enhancing molecules (beta-adrenergic agonists) and the current increase in carcasses size to curve the negative impact of escalating maize prices on the economics of intensive feed of beef cattle.

The literature survey suggest that low voltage electrical stimulation (LVES) is safer and more practical in South African abattoirs compared to high voltage electrical stimulation (HVES). The current research indicates that low voltage electrical stimulation has beneficial effects on meat quality of beef carcasses. Furthermore, early post mortem LVES is more beneficial compared to LVES after evisceration in terms of most meat quality attributes. Shorter duration LVES (30 sec.) was more beneficial compared to long duration LVES (60 sec.). Current chilling regimes of larger carcasses demonstrate that the effects of beta-agonist treatment on beef tenderness becomes negligible with increasing carcass size, provided that such carcasses are electrically stimulated early post mortem. Optimum carcass stimulation and chilling regimes were proposed for commercial beef abattoirs in South Africa.


Scientific publications (ISI peer reviewed)

  1. Agbeniga, B. & Webb, E.C. (2018). Influence of carcass weight on meat quality of commercial feedlot steers with similar feedlot, slaughter and post-mortem management, Food Research International, 105,793-800. (IF=3,086)
  2. Agbeniga, B. & Webb, E.C. (2018). Effects of timing and duration of low voltage electrical stimulation on selected meat quality characteristics of light and heavy bovine carcasses, Animal Production Science, (Accepted with minor changes).

Scientific conferences

  1.  B. Agbeniga, E.C. Webb, P.E. Strydom & L Frylinck, 2016. Effects of low voltage electrical stimulation and carcass size on meat tenderness and drip loss of beef carcasses treated with Zilmax®, 49th SASAS Congress, Cape Town, (Oral presentation).
  2. B. Agbeniga & E.C. Webb, 2015. Effects of duration of electrical stimulation and carcass weight on carcass pH, temperature profile and shear force of Zilmax treated beef carcasses, 48th SASAS congress, Zululand, (Oral Presentation).

Industry lectures

  1. Webb, E.C. (2016) Growth enhancers, residues and beef quality, Red Meat Abattoir Association Conference, Spier, Western Cape,
  2. Webb, E.C. (2016) Abattoir management and carcass and beef quality, Devon abattoir workshop, Protea Hotel, 22 July 2016.
  3. Webb, E.C. (2015). Factors that affect beef carcass and meat quality, North West RPO Koopmansfontein,  October 2015.
  1. Webb, E.C. (2015).Growth efficiency in feedlot cattle, Cattleman’s conference, South African Feedlot Association, March, Kiewietskroon.

Please contact the Primary Researcher if you need a copy of the comprehensive report of this project – Prof Edward Webb on