Innovative management for beef productivity

Innovative management to increase beef productivity in South Africa : Phase II

Industry Sector: Cattle and Small Stock

Research focus area: Livestock production with global competitiveness

Research Institute: ARC – Animal Production Institute

Researcher: Ms SM Grobler MSc (agric) Animal Science

Research Team:

TitleInitialsSurnameHighest Qualification
DrM.M..ScholtzDSc (Agric) Animal Science
DrA.MaiwashePhD (Agric) Animal Science
MrP.J.J.BreytenbachMSc (Agric) Animal Science
DrJ.P.C.GreylingPhD (Agric) Animal Science
PhD (Agric) Animal Science

Final report approved: 2016

Aims of the project

  • To establish if synchronization can lead to an increase in the total mass of calves weaned from a limited calving season, most likely by decreasing the days to calving, but also by increasing number of calves born
  • To establish if breeding replacement heifers at 14 months have an economic advantage over breeding heifers at 26 months in term of reproductive performance
  • To establish the impact of the two different grazing strategies on veld condition, grass species composition and basal vegetation cover over time

Executive Summary

This report presents the final results of the combined first and second phase of the project: Innovative management for improved productivity: Beef.  The motivation for this project was that the South African beef market has changed with a need for livestock research and development to think in terms of a livestock systems approach.  This entails the combination of sound natural resource utilization, forage management and reproduction management to ensure a sustainable production enterprise over time through the allocation of limited resources.

When the project was planned it was clear that a period of 3 years was not enough to evaluate extremely valuable long term effects on herd life and veld condition; however, the RMRD-SA only fund projects for a maximum of 3 years and therefore a second application was approved to cover the remaining two-year project period.

South Africa is still a net importer of beef. Therefore, by increasing off take in the beef sector, South Africa can move towards self-sufficiency. With fertility being regarded as one of the main components influencing total beef herd efficiency, it is essential that the quoted calving percentage of 62% in the commercial beef sector of South Africa must be improved.  If the long calving seasons can be shortened and the calving percentage increased, more and heavier calves with a more uniform age can be weaned.  Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next breeding season and are generally seen as the more fertile animals

Development, production and quality of replacement heifers is a crucial component in the extensive beef production system.  In general, beef heifers are managed to calve for the first time at three years of age, but in some cases mating of heifers at one year of age have been advocated. 

All extensive beef production systems in South Africa are dependent on natural veld and it is well documented that veld condition have a huge influence on a number of beef production parameters. Studies conducted on natural veld have concentrated mainly on aspects that affect herd efficiency, including calving percentage, pre-weaning growth and supplementation of cows and calves.  However, none of the studies focused on the reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally after synchronization, heifer age at breeding and effect of grazing system on veld condition.

The aim of the study was to evaluate: the effect of estrous synchronization followed by natural mating on the calving percentage and calving distribution of multiparous beef cows and heifers; effect of breeding heifers at either 14 months or 26 months of age and the evaluation of a high utilized grazing system and controlled selective grazing on veld condition and animal performance.  The effects of climate on cow-calf production characteristics over time was also evaluated.

The study was conducted from 2009 to 2015 at the Roodeplaat experimental farm (REF) of the ARC-Animal Production Institute (25°34’11.27’’S; 28°22’05.36’’E) on 900 ha of natural rangeland described as Sourish Mixed Bushveld.  The experimental herd (n=92) was divided in four sub-herds consisting of 23 cows each at the beginning of the project in 2009.  It was ensured that the four sub-herds were as uniform as possible at the beginning of the project e.g. age, weight, previous number of calves. Within each sub-herd, 50% of the cows and heifers were synchronized prior to the commencement of the breeding season. Two sub-herds were subjected to high utilized grazing and two sub-herds were subjected to controlled selective grazing. The two grazing systems were related to the use of 30% or 60% of the available grass dry matter.  Half the heifers were mated at 14 months and the other half at 26 months.

Results from this study indicated that calving percentage and body condition score did not differ significantly (P=0.54) between cows that was either synchronized or not synchronized followed by natural mating.  However, estrous synchronization prior to natural mating did influence the average days to conception with synchronized cows calving earlier, except for 2012 in the calving season.  Over the six-year project period 15% more cows from the synchronized group conceived within 293 days after the onset of the breeding season. Calves from the synchronized cows weaned on average 5kg heavier than the cows that were not synchronized although this difference was not significant.

Conception rates of heifers mated at 26 months were significantly (P<0.05) higher than heifers mated at 14 months of age.  It would seem that it may be more viable to breed Bonsmara heifers in an extensive production system in the Sourish Mixed Bushveld region at 26 months of age for the first time.  Synchronization of 14 month old heifers did not improve conception rate over 14 month old heifers bred naturally.  However, the calving percentage of synchronized heifers bred at 26 months was 6% higher than the non-synchronized heifers.

Almost no veld condition change was recorded except for veld condition scores for both controlled selective grazing and high utilization grazing.  In addition, the results indicate a tendency that high utilization grazing improved veld condition score and grass species composition over that of controlled selective grazing, but the duration of the study is too short to make a definite conclusion on the effect of grazing strategy on veld condition.

It was also shown that grazing strategy did not have a significant influence on cow weight and calf growth over the six-year period, indicating that both grazing strategies are sustainable in the Sourish Mixed Bushveld if carrying capacity is adhered to. 

With the significant differences between years (P ≤ 0.05) for calving percentage, cow weight at calving, cow weight at weaning, calf birth weight, calf weaning weight and body condition score over the six-year observation period, the effect of seasonal temperature, relative humidity and rainfall is elucidated.  Forward stepwise regression procedures were performed to determine what climatic data were involved in cow and calf weight at birth and weaning as well as calving percentage.  In spite of the high standard errors (which were probably due to the small sample size), maximum relative humidity one month prior to the start of the breeding season, made a major contribution to explain calving percentage and minimum temperature within the last month of the 3 month breeding season, had a low negative correlation with calving percentage.   It can be speculated that high humidity in the study region (Sourish Mixed Bushveld) is an indication of warm and wet conditions, negatively impacting cow and bull comfort, leading to lower conception rates.  The negative correlation between minimum temperature within the last month of the breeding season and calving percentage may indicate that the cows were unable to cool down at night during the warmer summer months of the year, leading to lower conception rates and resorptions. The researcher acknowledge that the available herd size may be a limitation and that a bigger herd or sub-herds’ size combined with bigger land size could benefit the project outcome, possibly resulting in more significant differences and/or enhanced interpretation of results


  1. Grobler, S.M., Scholtz, M.M. & J.P.C. Greyling, 2013.  Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally after synchronization in the Central Bushveld Bioregion.  South African Society of Animal Science 47th Congress – University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State Province 23-26 June 2013. Poster
  2. Grobler, S.M., Breytenbach, P.J.J. & M.M. Scholtz, 2013.  Effects of 2 grazing systems on veld in the Marikana Thornveld.  Grassland Society of Southern Africa.  48th annual Congress – Modimolle, Limpopo Province 15-19 July 2013.  Presentation
  3. Grobler, S.M., Scholtz, M.M., Neser, F.W.C., Greyling, J.P.C, Morey, L. & F. Calitz, 2016.  Reproductibve performance of extensively managed beef heifers mated at 14 months or 24 months in the Marikana Thornveld.  51th annual Congress – Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province 3 – 5 July 2016.  Poster

scientific articles

  1. Grobler, S.M., Scholtz, M.M., Greyling, J.P.C. & F.W.C. Neser, 2014.  Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following synchronization in the Central Bushveld bioregion of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 44: S70-S74
  2. Grobler, S.M., Scholtz, M.M., & Schwalbach, L.M.J. & J.P.C. Greyling, 2013.  Effect of synchronization on calving date following natural mating in beef cattle.  Appl. Anim. Husb. Rural Develop. 6:15-17

Popular Article

  • Grobler, S.M., Scholtz, M.M. & Breytenbach, P.J.J., 2014. Innovation = improved productivity. Red Meat/Rooi vleis. Agri Connect Pty (Ltd), Pretoria. Vol 5(1): 74-77

PhD Thesis submitted

  • Grobler, S.M., 2016. Alternative management systems to increase beef production under extensive conditions. PhD thesis. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Popular Article

Will follow later

Jackal ecology on reserves and farms

Ecology and population dynamics of black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) on reserves and farms

Industry Sector: Cattle and Small Stock

Research focus area: Predation management

Research Institute: Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela University

Researcher: Prof Graham Kerley

The Research Team

TitleInitialsSurnameHighest Qualification

Year of completion : 2017

Aims of the project

  • To determine dispersal direction between subpopulations
  • To compare demographic structures between subpopulatins
  • To resource use between subpopulations

Executive Summary


Lethal carnivore management, aimed at reducing carnivore impacts, threatens the persistence of carnivores globally. The effects of killing carnivores will depend on their life histories and social structures. Smaller canids, like black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas), are highly adaptable and display variable population-level responses to mortality sources, which may contribute to their success in fragmented landscapes. Jackals, the dominant predator of livestock in South Africa, are widely hunted to reduce this predation. This hunting is heterogeneous across the landscape, focussed on livestock and game farms, with nature reserves acting as refuges.

The aim of this research was to investigate the ecology and population dynamics of jackals in response to heterogeneous anthropogenic mortality. I hypothesized that the spatial variation in hunting results in the formation of a source-sink population structure, which contributes to the persistence of jackals. I addressed this hypothesis by evaluating two criteria, essential for the formation of a source-sink system in larger mammals.

Firstly, I confirm that hunting pressures result in the formation of distinct subpopulations with asymmetrical dispersal (i.e. compensatory immigration) from unhunted reserves to neighbouring hunted farms. Secondly, I show that jackal subpopulation display asynchronous demographics, with farm populations displaying a relatively younger age structure and an associated increase in reproductive output (i.e. compensatory reproduction). This confirms the formation of a hunting-induced source-sink system. Additionally, I show that jackals have a catholic diet, which confers a level of adaptability to direct (anthropogenic mortality, prey provisioning) and indirect (alteration in prey base) habitat modifications. This dietary flexibility allows jackals to obtain the appropriate resources to achieve reproductive condition. The relatively better body condition of younger jackals in sink habitats allows for compensatory reproduction which contributes to the success of jackals on hunted farms.

Based on my findings, I hypothesize that the compensatory life history responses of jackals to anthropogenic mortality may be ascribed to two interconnected mechanism. Dispersal is presumably driven by density-dependent interference competition, as dominant territorial pairs outcompete subordinates in high-density reserve areas, forcing them to disperse onto low-density farms (i.e. ideal despotic model). Additionally, farms likely represent attractive habitats, owing to a reduction in conspecifics and a concomitant increase in resource availability (including anthropogenic resource provisioning). Therefore, dispersing subordinates presumably select for farms which are perceived as good quality habitats, as the high risks of anthropogenic mortality cannot be perceived by dispersing individuals. This results in the formation of an attractive sink or ecological trap. These compensatory processes will continue to counter population management actions as long as recruitment from unmanaged areas persists. This hypothesis provides a conceptual framework for future research directions in understanding jackal persistence and management (i.e. specifically focussing on controlling dispersal) of jackal populations.


To follow soon

Please contact the Primary Researcher if you need a copy of the comprehensive report of this project – Graham Kerly on

Jackal ecology on reserves and farms